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HTML centering

Windows : Internet Explorer 3.0+, Firefox 1.0+, Google Chrome, Opera 3.51 - 6.xx and 9.0+, Safari 3.1+, SeaMonkey 1.0+ [ 1 ].

Linux : Firefox 1.0+, Chromium, Opera 5.0 - 6.xx and 9.0+, SeaMonkey 1.0+ [ 2 ].

Centering the whole content of a web page in the viewable area of a browser by pure HTML - no CSS. A box to keep the content of the page is HTML centered horizontally and vertically - [ Open demo page ]

HTML. Code:

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">

<html>

<head>

<title>HTML centering</title>

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=Windows-1252">

</head>

<body bgcolor="#ffffff">

<table width="100%" height="100%" bgcolor="#a3ddc4">

<tr>

<td align="center">

<table width="800" height="500" bgcolor="#ff6f6f">

<tr>

<td>&nbsp;</td>

</tr>

</table>

</td>

</tr>

</table>

</body>

</html>

The outer HTML table makes the whole web browser viewable area, except margins, a HTML table and the whole area of this HTML table - a HTML table cell.

The cell of the outer HTML table inherits the default value for valign attribute from its parent table row. And this row in its turn inherits the default value for valign attribute from the outer HTML table tbody - even if tbody tag is not used. And that value is middle. So a block of content inside the cell of the outer HTML table is centered vertically in web browser viewable are.

Align="center" of the outer HTML table cell makes a block of content inside it centered horizontally in web browser viewable are.

The inner table, the one inside of the outer HTML table cell makes up a box of a given size. Or there may be no set height or no set width or both. Then the size of the box is to adjust to accommodate the content, whatever its dimensions are. If the width or height or both of the box results to be larger than web browser viewable area, then it still ends up to be centered.

Since HTML centering is the oldest method to center content horizontally and vertically, it works well not just in older web browsers, but in ones that can be described as downright ancient. Like adding one more HTML tag ( <center></center> ) around the outer table makes it funcion as deep as Internet Explorer 3 : [ Open demo page ]

Download Internet Explorer 3: a pack, containing 3.0, 4.01, 5.01, 5.5, 6.0 versions of Internet Explorer

HTML. Code:

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">

<html>

<head>

<title>HTML centering for Internet Explorer 3</title>

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=Windows-1252">

</head>

<body bgcolor="#ffffff">

<!-- For Internet Explorer 3 --><center><!-- For Internet Explorer 3 -->

<table width="100%" height="100%" bgcolor="#a3ddc4">

<tr>

<td align="center">

<table width="800" height="500" bgcolor="#ff6f6f">

<tr>

<td>&nbsp;</td>

</tr>

</table>

</td>

</tr>

</table>

<!-- For Internet Explorer 3 --><center><!-- For Internet Explorer 3 -->

</body>

</html>

HTML horizontal and vertical centering of a box containing web page content has become obsolescent as a result of semantic markup spread. But it is still reliable. Not only in the major and modern web browsers, but in many alternative and older ones as well.

There is a minor flaw in it though. The height attribute of the <table><table/> tag is used there. It is supported for years by the majority of web browsers, but is incompatible with the standards promoted by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). So the code does not pass W3C validation. Back in 1990s - early 2000s, it was complicated or impossible to succeed in making a code both valid and working in the majority of web browsers, so the flaw was not looked at as a real problem.


[ 1 ]

As well as Netscape 2.02 - 4.80 and Offbyone. There is some shift of page content to the top left corner of the web browser viewable area in Netscape 2.02 - 4.80, since these web browsers reserve the place for scrollbars.

[ 2 ]

As well as Netscape 2.02 - 4.80. There is some shift of page content to the top left corner of the web browser viewable area in Netscape 2.02 - 4.80, since these web browsers reserve the place for scrollbars.


Aliosque subditos et thema

 

Windows console applications. Multimedia

 

MPlayer : FFmpeg Media players appeared long ago, but their heyday began with the mass spread of personal computers powerful enough to play video files. This coincided with the mass spread of operating systems and other software with graphical user interface. However, a program with a graphical user interface is dualistic in its nature: there is a code responsible for graphical user interface, for the appearance and there is a code - for performing the task the given application has been created for in the first place. Both code complexes consume system resources, their response time to user actions makes up certain amount of waiting time. And in cases or concepts when appearance is taken as less important - less important to the point of sparing or almost sparing to employ it - console applications, among others, appear. Moreover, the segmentation of the GUI and of the engine makes it easier to change the graphical user interface or perform complex automated operations. The scheme is implemented for media players for Windows as well. MPlayer, for instance, in its usual form is a console application, starting up quickly, having fast response to user actions, consuming system resources almost entirely for its immediate task. And on this basis if desired, one or another graphical interface may be added for creating, all in all, a new application. MPlayer - / home page / Console media player for Windows. Basis for SMPlayer and UMPlayer. There are versions for Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Apple Darwin, Mac OS X, QNX, OpenSolaris/Solaris, Irix, HP-UX, AIX, some other *nix system, BeOS, Syllable, AmigaOS, AROS, MorphOS, DOS, Windows. Supported video, audio formats, static images, subtitles, etc. ( List and More extensive list of video and audio codecs ). MPlayer: "Dead Man" MPlayer: "Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow" MPlayer: "10,000 BC" MPlayer: "13 Tzameti" MPlayer: "The Draughtsman's Contract" MPlayer: "Balzaminov's Marriage" FFmpeg - / home page / Pack of utilities and libraries for work with video and audio files. Created in and for Linux, but there is a Windows variant. Source code may be compiled for some other operating systems. Supported file formats and codecs: ( List ). Also, VLC media player can be run in text mode, ncurses using.

JavaScript + CSS centering

 

Centering content of a web page by means of JavaScript and CSS. A block containing the content of a page is JavaScript + CSS centered horizontally and vertically. Two cases: 1. A block is centered, if screen resolution is equal to or greater than 1024x768 - [ Open demo page ] 2. A block is centered, if screen resolution is equal to or greater than 1024x768 + mouse cursor is moved over a link in an element of the page content - [ Open demo page ] JavaScript and CSS horizontal and vertical centering. The first case. Step by step. 1. A web page, the part of which is going to be the element the JavaScript + CSS horizontal and vertical centering is to be applied to: HTML / XHTML. Code: <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en"> <head> <title>JavaScript + CSS horizontal and vertical centering. The first case. Step 1</title> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=Windows-1252" /> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="1.css" /> </head> <body>   </body> </html> CSS. Code: html {height: 100%; margin: 0px;} body {background-color: #fff; margin: 0px; height: 100%;} 2. A block element A (grey color) with dimensions declared explicitly, for instance 800 by 500 pixels and with relative positioning is created in the document's body. [ Open demo page ] HTML / XHTML. Code: <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en"> <head> <title>JavaScript + CSS horizontal and vertical centering. The first case. Step 2</title> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=Windows-1252" /> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="2.css" /> </head> <body> <div class="element_A">&nbsp;</div> </body> </html> CSS.