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HTML centering

Windows : Internet Explorer 3.0+, Firefox 1.0+, Google Chrome, Opera 3.51 - 6.xx and 9.0+, Safari 3.1+, SeaMonkey 1.0+ [ 1 ].

Linux : Firefox 1.0+, Chromium, Opera 5.0 - 6.xx and 9.0+, SeaMonkey 1.0+ [ 2 ].

Centering the whole content of a web page in the viewable area of a browser by pure HTML - no CSS. A box to keep the content of the page is HTML centered horizontally and vertically - [ Open demo page ]

HTML. Code:

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">

<html>

<head>

<title>HTML centering</title>

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=Windows-1252">

</head>

<body bgcolor="#ffffff">

<table width="100%" height="100%" bgcolor="#a3ddc4">

<tr>

<td align="center">

<table width="800" height="500" bgcolor="#ff6f6f">

<tr>

<td>&nbsp;</td>

</tr>

</table>

</td>

</tr>

</table>

</body>

</html>

The outer HTML table makes the whole web browser viewable area, except margins, a HTML table and the whole area of this HTML table - a HTML table cell.

The cell of the outer HTML table inherits the default value for valign attribute from its parent table row. And this row in its turn inherits the default value for valign attribute from the outer HTML table tbody - even if tbody tag is not used. And that value is middle. So a block of content inside the cell of the outer HTML table is centered vertically in web browser viewable are.

Align="center" of the outer HTML table cell makes a block of content inside it centered horizontally in web browser viewable are.

The inner table, the one inside of the outer HTML table cell makes up a box of a given size. Or there may be no set height or no set width or both. Then the size of the box is to adjust to accommodate the content, whatever its dimensions are. If the width or height or both of the box results to be larger than web browser viewable area, then it still ends up to be centered.

Since HTML centering is the oldest method to center content horizontally and vertically, it works well not just in older web browsers, but in ones that can be described as downright ancient. Like adding one more HTML tag ( <center></center> ) around the outer table makes it funcion as deep as Internet Explorer 3 : [ Open demo page ]

Download Internet Explorer 3: a pack, containing 3.0, 4.01, 5.01, 5.5, 6.0 versions of Internet Explorer

HTML. Code:

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">

<html>

<head>

<title>HTML centering for Internet Explorer 3</title>

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=Windows-1252">

</head>

<body bgcolor="#ffffff">

<!-- For Internet Explorer 3 --><center><!-- For Internet Explorer 3 -->

<table width="100%" height="100%" bgcolor="#a3ddc4">

<tr>

<td align="center">

<table width="800" height="500" bgcolor="#ff6f6f">

<tr>

<td>&nbsp;</td>

</tr>

</table>

</td>

</tr>

</table>

<!-- For Internet Explorer 3 --><center><!-- For Internet Explorer 3 -->

</body>

</html>

HTML horizontal and vertical centering of a box containing web page content has become obsolescent as a result of semantic markup spread. But it is still reliable. Not only in the major and modern web browsers, but in many alternative and older ones as well.

There is a minor flaw in it though. The height attribute of the <table><table/> tag is used there. It is supported for years by the majority of web browsers, but is incompatible with the standards promoted by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). So the code does not pass W3C validation. Back in 1990s - early 2000s, it was complicated or impossible to succeed in making a code both valid and working in the majority of web browsers, so the flaw was not looked at as a real problem.


[ 1 ]

As well as Netscape 2.02 - 4.80 and Offbyone. There is some shift of page content to the top left corner of the web browser viewable area in Netscape 2.02 - 4.80, since these web browsers reserve the place for scrollbars.

[ 2 ]

As well as Netscape 2.02 - 4.80. There is some shift of page content to the top left corner of the web browser viewable area in Netscape 2.02 - 4.80, since these web browsers reserve the place for scrollbars.


Aliosque subditos et thema

 

FTP in DOS

 

FTP in DOS. mTCP mTCP is a suite containing several utilities, one of which is FTP. It is similar to the FTP client of various Windows, running in Command Prompt. In order to install and use mTCP: 1. mTCP [ Home page ] 2. Packet driver for Ethernet network card: http://www.crynwr.com/drivers/ http://www.georgpotthast.de/sioux/packet.htm 3. Create a folder, for example C:\DRIVERS\. Put there: a packet driver for Ethernet network card. 4. Set up network. For example, by means of Microsoft Network Client 3.0 [ How-to page ] 5. Start packet driver. In the case discussed it is: C:\DRIVERS\PCIPKT.COM 0x60 6. Unpack the archive with mTCP into a folder, C:\SOFT\MTCP for instance, and create a tcp.cfg file in it with the strings: PACKETINT 0x60 HOSTNAME FTP_IN_DOS The value of PACKETINT - the interrupt number used in the packet driver starting. The value of HOSTNAME - any. 7. Start DHCP.EXE (DHCP will set up mTCP for work with the network): DHCP 8. Start FTP: FTP [ FTP address / host ] There will be a prompt for a name, after that - the password. Next, it is better to switch to passive mode: XFERMODE PASSIVE [ The list of the main commands supported by FTP of mTCP is available in ftp.txt, included in mTCP suite archive ] To exit: QUIT mTCP - GNU GPL v3.

Windows console applications. Text editors

 

FTE : JED : MinEd : Nano : MS-DOS Editor Initially, all text editors did not have a graphical interface. And work with text almost from the outset was one of the main types of user activity on computer. With the invention and spread of low-level and especially high-level programming languages, text editor has become an important working tool of professionals. Then, other users had to use text editors for their daily tasks. So by the time the programs with GUI started to be wide spread, the concept of text editor was already well developed, there were mature, well-designed and implemented specimens of applications for text editing without graphical user interface. Why the text-based versions coexisted with GUI-based ones for very long and still graphical user interface programs have not replaced the console / text-based applications. While the average user is not aware of their existence, he / she does not know the power of vim or emacs, often even MS-DOS Editor, built in all the 32-bit versions of Windows is unknown, none the less, console text editors continue to exist and be developed. As it is the case with the text web browsers, the main line of text-based text editors development is in Linux and other *nix systems world. But under Windows as well, there are several interesting applications. FTE - / home page / Console text editor. Version for Linux, some other *nix systems, DOS, Windows, OS/2. Syntax highlighting support for: C, C++, Java, Perl, Sh, Pascal, SQL, Assembly, PHP, Python, REXX, Ada, Fortran, IDL, LinuxDoc, TeX, TeXInfo, HTML, etc. ASCII table. Various facilities for coding and errors handling. Copying words, characters or text blocks is in the same mode and by the same keyboard shortcuts (except Ctrl+A) as in major Windows text editors with graphical user interface - plus, there may be other variations. FTE 0.49.13: Open file FTE 0.49.13: A submenu FTE 0.49.13: Settings FTE 0.49.13: Opened .php file FTE 0.49.13: Opened .htm file FTE 0.49.13: Opened C code JED - / home page / Console text editor. Version for Linux, some other *nix systems, QNX, OS/2, BeOS, OpenVMS, DOS, Windows. Syntax highlighting support for: C, C++, FORTRAN, TeX, HTML, SH, python, IDL, DCL, NROFF, etc. JED can emulate Emacs, EDT, Wordstar, Borland, Brief. C-like S-Lang language for extra settings possibilities and extensions.