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HTML centering

Windows : Internet Explorer 3.0+, Firefox 1.0+, Google Chrome, Opera 3.51 - 6.xx and 9.0+, Safari 3.1+, SeaMonkey 1.0+ [ 1 ].

Linux : Firefox 1.0+, Chromium, Opera 5.0 - 6.xx and 9.0+, SeaMonkey 1.0+ [ 2 ].

Centering the whole content of a web page in the viewable area of a browser by pure HTML - no CSS. A box to keep the content of the page is HTML centered horizontally and vertically - [ Open demo page ]

HTML. Code:

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">

<html>

<head>

<title>HTML centering</title>

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=Windows-1252">

</head>

<body bgcolor="#ffffff">

<table width="100%" height="100%" bgcolor="#a3ddc4">

<tr>

<td align="center">

<table width="800" height="500" bgcolor="#ff6f6f">

<tr>

<td>&nbsp;</td>

</tr>

</table>

</td>

</tr>

</table>

</body>

</html>

The outer HTML table makes the whole web browser viewable area, except margins, a HTML table and the whole area of this HTML table - a HTML table cell.

The cell of the outer HTML table inherits the default value for valign attribute from its parent table row. And this row in its turn inherits the default value for valign attribute from the outer HTML table tbody - even if tbody tag is not used. And that value is middle. So a block of content inside the cell of the outer HTML table is centered vertically in web browser viewable are.

Align="center" of the outer HTML table cell makes a block of content inside it centered horizontally in web browser viewable are.

The inner table, the one inside of the outer HTML table cell makes up a box of a given size. Or there may be no set height or no set width or both. Then the size of the box is to adjust to accommodate the content, whatever its dimensions are. If the width or height or both of the box results to be larger than web browser viewable area, then it still ends up to be centered.

Since HTML centering is the oldest method to center content horizontally and vertically, it works well not just in older web browsers, but in ones that can be described as downright ancient. Like adding one more HTML tag ( <center></center> ) around the outer table makes it funcion as deep as Internet Explorer 3 : [ Open demo page ]

Download Internet Explorer 3: a pack, containing 3.0, 4.01, 5.01, 5.5, 6.0 versions of Internet Explorer

HTML. Code:

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">

<html>

<head>

<title>HTML centering for Internet Explorer 3</title>

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=Windows-1252">

</head>

<body bgcolor="#ffffff">

<!-- For Internet Explorer 3 --><center><!-- For Internet Explorer 3 -->

<table width="100%" height="100%" bgcolor="#a3ddc4">

<tr>

<td align="center">

<table width="800" height="500" bgcolor="#ff6f6f">

<tr>

<td>&nbsp;</td>

</tr>

</table>

</td>

</tr>

</table>

<!-- For Internet Explorer 3 --><center><!-- For Internet Explorer 3 -->

</body>

</html>

HTML horizontal and vertical centering of a box containing web page content has become obsolescent as a result of semantic markup spread. But it is still reliable. Not only in the major and modern web browsers, but in many alternative and older ones as well.

There is a minor flaw in it though. The height attribute of the <table><table/> tag is used there. It is supported for years by the majority of web browsers, but is incompatible with the standards promoted by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). So the code does not pass W3C validation. Back in 1990s - early 2000s, it was complicated or impossible to succeed in making a code both valid and working in the majority of web browsers, so the flaw was not looked at as a real problem.


[ 1 ]

As well as Netscape 2.02 - 4.80 and Offbyone. There is some shift of page content to the top left corner of the web browser viewable area in Netscape 2.02 - 4.80, since these web browsers reserve the place for scrollbars.

[ 2 ]

As well as Netscape 2.02 - 4.80. There is some shift of page content to the top left corner of the web browser viewable area in Netscape 2.02 - 4.80, since these web browsers reserve the place for scrollbars.


Aliosque subditos et thema

 

Imapsync. IMAP migration

 

Migrating an IMAP account from one IMAP server to another [ 1 ] / Linux, command line: imapsync --host1 imap.this.com --user1 email@example.com --passfile1 /home/user/imap/passwordfile1 --ssl1 --host2 imap.another.com --user2 email@example.com --passfile2 /home/user/imap/passwordfile2 --ssl2 --skipsize --allowsizemismatch - There is a web site (example.com) and an email box (email@example.com) hosted at a web hosting company. The IMAP server: imap.this.com. The IMAP server supports SSL. - The example.com web site is to be transfered to another web hosting company. So is the email@example.com box with all its contents and keeping its folders structure. The IMAP server of another web hosting company: imap.another.com. The IMAP server supports SSL. 1. Set up an email box named email@example.com and a password to it on the server of the web hosting company the email@example.com mailbox is to be transfered to - from the previous web hosting company. 2. Create two text files in /home/user/imap/: passwordfile1 with the password for the mailbox on the first IMAP server and passwordfile2 with the password for the mailbox on the second IMAP server. 3. chmod 600 /home/user/imap/passwordfile1 4. chmod 600 /home/user/imap/passwordfile2 5. Install imapsync 6. Run imapsync Imapsync transfers a mailbox - keeping its folders structure - from imap.this.com to imap.another.com. SSL is used to enable encryption and passwords are saved to protected files (chmod 600). Migration between two email service boxes may happen to require to make use of more imapsync options [ 2 ]. Like transfering contents of one Gmail.com box to another demands to have "--port1" and "--port2" specified: imapsync --host1 imap.gmail.com --port1 993 --user1 email1@gmail.com --passfile1 /home/user/imap/passwordfile1 --ssl1 --host2 imap.gmail.com --port2 993 --user2 email2@gmail.com --passfile2 /home/user/imap/passwordfile2 --ssl2 --skipsize --allowsizemismatch [ 1 ] A simple and common case: contents of one email box are transfered to another, empty mailbox. But there can be more complicated ones like: Gmail to Google Apps Email Migration and Moving to Google Apps with imapsync. [ 2 ] For more command options: Migrate mail from one server to another with imapsync and imapsync(1) - Linux man page.

FTP in DOS

 

FTP in DOS. mTCP mTCP is a suite containing several utilities, one of which is FTP. It is similar to the FTP client of various Windows, running in Command Prompt. In order to install and use mTCP: 1. mTCP [ Home page ] 2. Packet driver for Ethernet network card: http://www.crynwr.com/drivers/ http://www.georgpotthast.de/sioux/packet.htm 3. Create a folder, for example C:\DRIVERS\. Put there: a packet driver for Ethernet network card. 4. Set up network. For example, by means of Microsoft Network Client 3.0 [ How-to page ] 5. Start packet driver. In the case discussed it is: C:\DRIVERS\PCIPKT.COM 0x60 6. Unpack the archive with mTCP into a folder, C:\SOFT\MTCP for instance, and create a tcp.cfg file in it with the strings: PACKETINT 0x60 HOSTNAME FTP_IN_DOS The value of PACKETINT - the interrupt number used in the packet driver starting. The value of HOSTNAME - any. 7. Start DHCP.EXE (DHCP will set up mTCP for work with the network): DHCP 8. Start FTP: FTP [ FTP address / host ] There will be a prompt for a name, after that - the password. Next, it is better to switch to passive mode: XFERMODE PASSIVE [ The list of the main commands supported by FTP of mTCP is available in ftp.txt, included in mTCP suite archive ] To exit: QUIT mTCP - GNU GPL v3.